Lithium Ion Battery Development

  • The first patent for lithium-ion batteries was issued in 1981.
  • In 1992, SONY began mass production of lithium ion batteries for civilian use.
  • In 1998, a large number of prismatic lithium ion batteries were put into the market, occupying a large share of the market.
  • China began mass production of lithium ion batteries in 1999.

Lithium Ion Battery Application

It is mainly used in digital products, mobile phones, portable power supplies, laptops and other electronic devices. 18650 lithium battery and lithium polymer battery are commonly used.

It is mainly applied in the fields of medical electronics, photovoltaic energy storage, railway infrastructure, security communication, exploration and mapping, etc. Energy storage/power lithium battery, lithium iron phosphate battery, polymer lithium battery, 18650 lithium battery are commonly used.

It is mainly used in the fields of military police, aerospace, naval ships, satellite navigation, weapons, and high energy physics. Ultra-low temperature lithium ion battery, high temperature lithium ion battery, lithium titanate battery and explosion-proof lithium battery are commonly used.

Classification of Lithium Ion Batteries

Cylindrical Lithium Ion Battery

The model name of cylindrical lithium ion battery is generally 5 digits. The first two digits are the diameter of the battery, the middle two digits are the height of the battery, the last digit 0 represents cylindrical battery. The unit is millimeter.

Prismatic Lithium Ion Battery

Prismatic lithium ion battery usually refers to the aluminum or steel case prismatic lithium ion battery, widely used in exploration and mapping, medical equipment, portable testing equipment.

  • Steel Case Lithium Ion Battery
  • Long ago, steel lithium ion batteries are used commonly. Due to the large weight of the steel case, poor safety, but good stability, many manufacturers increase battery safety performance by optimizing the design structure by safety valve, PTC and other devices. Some manufacturers replace the steel case with an aluminum case and flexible package, such as the current cell phone battery.

  • Aluminum Case Lithium Ion Battery
  • The aluminum case lithium ion battery is lighter and slightly safer than the steel case lithium ion battery.

  • Pouch cell
  • Pouch cell has the advantages of light weight, low mould cost and high safety. It gradually expands its market share.

    • Steel Case Lithium Ion Battery
      Steel Case Lithium Ion Battery
    • Aluminum Case Lithium Ion
      Aluminum Case Lithium Ion
    • Pouch cell
      Pouch cell

    Currently, there are four kinds of anode materials for lithium ion batteries:

    LiCoO2 battery

    The chemical formula for lithium cobalt oxide is LiCoO ₂. It is a kind of inorganic compounds, and is usually used as positive electrode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    LiMn2O4 battery

    Lithium manganese is mainly spinel manganese, which was first prepared by Hunter in 1981 as a positive electrode material with three-dimensional lithium ion channels.

    LiFePO4 Battery

    Lithium iron phosphate is a lithium ion battery anode material. Lithium iron phosphate batteries, named after their anode material, are also known as LiFePO4 battery and LFP battery.

    NCM (Ternary) Battery

    Lithium nickel manganese cobalt is the key ternary anode material for lithium ion battery, which has higher specific capacity and lower cost than the other anode material.

    The material characteristics of the anode of lithium ion battery are compared as follows:
    Item LiCoO2 LiNiCoMnO2 (ternary) LiMn2O4 LiFePO4
    Compacted Density (g/cm3) 2.8~3.0 2.0~2.3 2.2~2.4 1.0~1.4
    Specific Surface Area (m2/g) 0.4~0.6 0.2~0.4 0.4~0.8 12~20
    Volume (mAh/g) 135~140 140~180 90~100 130~140
    Voltage Platform (V) 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.2
    Cycle Performance ≥500times ≥500times ≥300times ≥2000times
    Safety Performance bad good better best
    Scope of Application small and medium
    size battery
    small batteries/small
    power battery
    power battery
    low cost battery
    power battery/power
    supply with super
    capacity
  • Liquid Lithium Ion Battery
  • Liquid lithium ion battery uses liquid electrolytes, which are organic solvents and lithium salts.

  • Polymer Lithium Ion Battery
  • Polymer lithium ion battery uses solid polymer electrolyte, which can be either "dry" or "colloidal". Most manufacturers use polymer colloidal electrolyte currently. The polymer matrix tends to be HFP-PVDF, PEO, PAN and PMMA.

  • All-solid-state Lithium Ion Battery
  • "All-solid-state lithium ion battery" is a kind of lithium battery with solid electrode and electrolyte materials used in the working temperature range and without any liquid components, so it is called "all-solid-state lithium ion battery with electrolyte".

    Recommended Lithium Ion Battery Brand

    • Sony
      Sony
    • Panasonic
      Panasonic
    • Sanyo
      Sanyo
    • Samsung
      Samsung
    • BAK
      BAK
    • LISHEN
      LISHEN
    • LARGE
      LARGE
    • LG
      LG
    • CATL
    • Panasonic
    • BYD
    • Tesla
    • LG
    • Samsung SDI
    • GUOXUAN
    • LISHEN
    • BAK
    • CALB
    LARGE Special Lithium Ion Battery Core Technology
    Four High

    High Energy Density
    (Ternary, lithium cobalt oxide system)
    Mass energy density 285 watt-hour/kg,
    Volume energy density 700 watt-hour/kg

    High Rate
    (Ternary, Lithium Cobalt Oxide, Lithium Iron Phosphate System)
    100C continuous discharge,
    The temperature controls within 40℃.

    High Temperature
    (Ternary, Lithium Iron Phosphate System)
    The high temperature of 80℃ lasts for 200 cycles.
    Store at 85℃ for 48 hours.

    High Voltage
    (Lithium Cobalt Oxide)
    The maximum charging voltage of the battery is 4.45V.
    The voltage platform can reach 3.85V.

    Two Low

    Low Temperature Charging
    (Ternary, Lithium Iron Phosphate System)
    It can charge 0.2C at -40℃ low temperature,
    and have more than 300 charging and discharging cycles.

    Low Temperature Discharge
    (Ternary, Lithium Iron Phosphate System)
    low temperature discharge, more than 75% capacity retention rate;
    -40℃ high rate 5C continuous discharge, more than 80% capacity retention rate.

    One Explosion-proof (Modified Ternary Chemical System)
    The high energy density of 190~200Wh/kg meets Ex ia\ib IIA\IIB T1-T4 explosion-proof standard and passes safety tests including puncture and impact.
    Recommended Special Lithium Ion Battery

    Lithium Ion Battery Parameters

  • Nominal Voltage
  • The potential difference between the anode and cathode of lithium ion battery is called the nominal voltage of lithium ion battery. The nominal voltage is determined by the electrode potential of the electrode material and the concentration of the internal electrolyte.

  • Open Circuit Voltage
  • The terminal voltage of the battery in the open circuit state is called the open circuit voltage. The open circuit voltage of the battery is equal to the potential difference between the anode and cathode.

  • Operating Voltage
  • Working voltage refers to the voltage displayed during the discharge process after the battery is connected to the load. It is also known as discharge voltage. The initial discharge voltage is called the initial voltage.

  • Recommended Commonly Used Voltage of Lithium Ion Battery:
  • 12V Lithium Ion Battery
    24V Lithium Ion Battery
    36V Lithium Ion Battery
    48V Lithium Ion Battery

    The capacity of a lithium ion battery under certain discharge conditions is called the capacity of a lithium ion battery and is represented by the symbol C. The commonly used unit is the ampere hour, or ampere-hour (Ah) or milliampere-hour (mAh) for short.

    The capacity of lithium ion battery is affected by the anode material, battery temperature, discharge rate and voltage.

    The internal impedance of lithium ion battery refers to the impedance caused by the current passing through the lithium ion battery. The internal impedance will affect the voltage of lithium ion battery.

    The cycle life of a lithium ion battery is generally expressed by cycle number. One cycle represents a complete charge and discharge cycle of the lithium ion battery (that is, the lithium ion battery is charged from empty to full state and then discharged from full to empty state).

    Cycle characteristics

    Note: Lithium ion battery has good cycle characteristics and can maintain about 80% capacity after 500 cycles.

    Discharge rate refers to the current of lithium ion battery during discharge, which is generally expressed as C. The formula is as follows:

    Discharge Rate = Discharge Current/Rated Capacity

    Discharging load characteristics

    Note: Because lithium ion battery has organic solvent electrolytes, the conductivity is typically only a few hundredths of that of lead-acid or alkaline battery electrolytes. Therefore, when the lithium ion battery is discharged at a high current, it is too late to replenish Li+ from the electrolyte, and then the voltage will reduce.

    The operating temperature of lithium ion battery refers to temperature of the charging and discharging environment that lithium ion battery can adapt to.

    When lithium ion battery is at low temperature, the discharge platform has a certain reduction. When the temperature is high, the circulation performance of the battery will be affected, and the battery will slightly swell. Therefore, the battery is generally recommended to operate at 0-40℃.

    Discharge temperature characteristics

    Low Temperature Discharge Characteristic Curve of Lithium Ion Battery

    Storage characteristics

    High Temperature Discharge Characteristic Curve of Lithium Ion Battery

    Lithium Ion Battery and Lead Acid Battery, NI-MH Battery

    Item Lithium Ion Battery Lead Acid battery NI-MH Battery
    Energy Density (wh/kg) 200~260wh/kg 50~70wh/kg 40~70wh/kg
    Open Circuit Voltage (v) 3.6V 2.0V 1.2V
    Cycle Life (Times) 300-2500 400-600 300-350
    Charging Speed Quick Slow Slower
    Memory Effect No No Yes
    Environmental Performance Lower Pollution High Pollution Low Pollution

    Lithium Ion Battery Pack 

    Lithium ion battery pack mainly refers to the processing and assembly of lithium ion battery, which is mainly to process the battery cell, PCM, BMS, connector, label, holder, cases, lead and terminal into products according to customer’s requirements.

    Storage characteristics

    Lithium Ion Battery Safety Test

    The best lithium ion battery has to pass UL2054 safety standard (lithium ion battery) and has to finish the tests below:

  • Appearance
  • The best lithium ion battery has to pass UL2054 safety standard (lithium ion battery) and has to finish the tests below:

  • Electric Performance Test
  • 0.2C5A discharge performance, 1C5A discharge performance, high temperature performance, low temperature performance, charge retention and cycling.

  • Environment Compatibility Verification
  • Constant heat and humidity, vibration, collision and free drop

  • Safety Performance
  • Impact test, thermal shock, overcharge, short circuit and other safety tests

    Lithium Ion Battery Certification and Test Standard

    Product Certification

    Certification Details of Major Global Countries and Regions(Battery)

    Storage characteristics

    Lithium Ion Battery Transportation

    Lithium battery can be transported by air, by ship, or by vehicles and train. The most commonly used is air transport and marine transport. Because lithium is a metal particularly prone to chemical reactions and combustion, improper lithium battery package and transportation may lead to combustion and explosion.

    • Be in UN package in accordance with the DGR Dangerous Good Specification. The corresponding number shall be displayed on the package.
    • Use 9 hazard labels properly.
    • Fill in dangerous goods declaration form and provide relevant dangerous packing certificate.
    caution
    • Batteries shall meet UN 38.3 test requirements and pass package drop test at 1.2m height.
    • Provide declaration documents of dangerous goods, marked with UN number.
    • The battery shall be protected against short circuit. Especially in the same package, prevent conductive material against short circuit.
    • In order to avoid intense vibration during transition, use corner armor on all vertical and horizontal edges of the tray.

    Lithium Ion Battery Price

    The price of single lithium ion battery cell is mainly influenced by brand and quality, while the price of lithium ion battery pack has affected by many factors:

    • Cell Model

    • Voltage

    • Capacity

    • Demand and Design of PCM

    • Demand and Design of Case

    How to Use Lithium Ion Battery Properly

    Storage of Lithium Ion Battery - The most critical storage conditions for lithium ion batteries are temperature and humidity. It is recommended to store battery at 20℃. Make sure the warehouse is moisture proof and humidity proof. Don't make lithium ion battery in a state of power loss. Do not extrude or impact the battery. Do not store battery in strong static or high magnetic field.

    Lithium Battery Charge and Discharge - Do not overcharge the battery. Do not use inferior charger. Do not use high power charger a lot. Do not discharge more than 80% of the battery capacity.

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