The internal principle of silver zinc battery

Oct 09, 2019   Pageview:10

Discharge electrode reaction can be written as: the cathode zinc + 20 h e ˉ ˉ - 2 = the positive Ag2O ZnO + H2O + H20 + 2 e ˉ ˉ ag + 20 h = 2The battery overall reaction is: zinc + Ag2O = ZnO ag + 2 tiny buttons type cap silver-zinc battery shell from the positive and negative (both are made of stainless steel), insulation, sealing ring, isolation film, the positive active material (a line and a small amount of graphite powder, the latter conductive role), the cathode active material (zinc amalgam mercury content rarely), electrolyte solution (concentrated KOH solution), and other assembled.Quality good available for about 1 year, the best available about 2 years.Watch in general is this kind of button cell battery.The battery after use or scrap, no longer to charge.Why in the button type silver-zinc battery cathode active material used is not the pure zinc but few zinc amalgam mercury content?This is because if use the pure zinc, battery when not work (when empty) will be the battery electrolyte solution in the corrosion and release hydrogen gas, so that affect the service life of the battery, and use mercury though rarely zinc amalgam, can make the battery when not work zinc corrosion process was extremely stop to the smallest degree.Silver-zinc battery is such, not only in certain other battery also do the same.As in the traditional process of manufacturing zinc manganese dry battery, zinc processing with mercuric chloride solution, part of the zinc reaction happened: zinc + Hg = zinc + Hg generated mercury react with zinc to form zinc amalgam.The dosage of the manufacturing process control HgCl2, generated in the alloy containing mercury only about 0.25%.Too much mercury zinc is brittle.Are studying in the pool, there is no mercury process to avoid the dangers of mercury pollution.

Zinc silver battery is one of the highest energy solution.So far, zinc silver battery has experienced 100 years of development, zinc silver battery energy density theory for w. h. 300 / kg, 1400 w. h/dm3, actual energy density of 40 ~ 110 w. h/kg, 116 ~ 320 w. h/dm3.The first successful zinc silver oxide battery system is set up in 1941 by French professor Henry Andre (Henri Andre) invention.The zinc silver battery research direction is further improved zinc silver than double polarity characteristics, design and improve the density of active material discharge.

So far, zinc silver battery has experienced 100 years of development, zinc silver battery energy density theory for w. h. 300 / kg, 1400 w. h/dm3, actual energy density of 40 ~ 110 w. h/kg, 116 ~ 320 w. h/dm3, aqueous solution is of the highest energy battery.In 1883, clark (Clarke) describes in theory the first complete alkaline zinc silver oxide battery.Dun and others in 1887 invented the first complete zinc silver oxide batteries only.The first successful zinc oxide battery system is set up in 1941 by French professor Henry Andre (Henri Andre) invention, he in the zinc silver battery paper describes his early work, and in 1943 the United States patent.Zinc silver battery available 60 years later, a zinc silver cell and secondary zinc batteries in the commercial, aerospace, submarines and nuclear weapons, and other fields has been widely applied, its high reliability and good safety incomparable advantage is other electrochemical system.Some developed countries, such as the United States, Britain, France, Japan, Germany, Canada, Italy, Russia, etc., and some of the developing countries are in development and production of zinc silver batteries.At present there are mainly six plants, can be done by zinc silver development, design and production of the battery.Zinc silver battery is than even the most excellent battery characteristics and voltage output stable system.The zinc silver battery research direction is further improved zinc silver than double polarity characteristics, design and improve the density of active material discharge.

Zinc silver battery according to the nature of work can be divided into three categories, the first is primary battery (or battery), the second is the battery (or secondary battery), the third class is reserve batteries (or activate cells).Zinc silver battery according to the structure and properties can be divided into two categories: six kinds of cells, the first kind is charged state (or dry type), the second is charged battery.The first kind of battery is artificial activation of battery, the battery before use after 1 ~ 3 times to charge and discharge cycle is needed to work properly.The second type of battery is divided into two methods of dry and wet, dry type refers to the artificial activation of primary or secondary batteries, automatically activated batteries, wet refers to the original battery, button cell, or a secondary battery fully sealed battery.Dry before the main characteristic is to use the battery can't output power, need an activation process;A battery before use is the main characteristic of wet already have the ability to output power, main power device can use.No matter dry or wet, this kind of battery does not need to charge before use.Zinc silver battery according to the discharge rate of classification can be divided into five categories.The first is low range cell, discharge rate is less than 0.5 C;The second type is the ratio of the battery, the discharge rate was 0.5 ~ 3.5 C;The third class is a high rate of the battery, the discharge rate was 3.5 ~ 7 c;The fourth class is powerful enough battery, discharge rate is more than 7 c;The fifth class is button cell, the discharge current biggest not more than 1 ma.The classification of the zinc silver battery is not independent of each other, but connect with each other.

Zinc silver battery has the following advantages: (1) has the very high specific energy,(2) has the very high discharge efficiency;(3) with moderate charging efficiency;(4) have relatively stable discharge voltage;(5) so low self-discharge rate,(6) has a long dry storage life;(7) has good mechanical properties.[1]

At the same time, the zinc silver battery also has obvious limits, its shortcomings are as follows: (1) the cost is very high;(2) life is short;(3) the low temperature performance is poorer;(4) don't overcharge resistant.[1]

Zinc silver battery has the following main application: (1) the high rate of type battery: this kind of battery has excellent large current discharge performance, can be used for all kinds of missile launch vehicle control system, servo, engine and other equipment of the main power supply, also can be used as a target, all kinds of aircraft launch and emergency power.Type (2) the ratio of the battery: zinc silver the working voltage of battery is very smooth, when working under medium and low range is more significant, in missile and rocket telemetry system, measuring system and safe self-destruction system and instrument in the tank, this type of battery is widely used.Low range low range (3) battery type: type battery voltage not only stable, and reliable performance, apply to high requirement of voltage stability play instruments, or an arrow on sealed zinc silver battery can also be used as the service life for a few days to 10 days of recoverable satellites main power supply.(4) news photography battery: zinc silver battery due to its stable performance, small volume, light quality, the use of the advantages of simple maintenance by the film studio, the central and local television stations as a TV news photography, photography and lighting power supply.

Zinc silver battery at room temperature, charged aside after three months, release power generally 85% of the rated capacity.On the cathode dendrite growth and rupture of the diaphragm, the battery life is terminated, low battery cycle life can reach more than 100 weeks.Key to enlarge the range of zinc silver battery application, in addition to reduce the cost, there is a decisive factor, is to extend the cycle life of zinc silver battery.There is a close relationship, circle life and discharge depth by 22 capacity of 8 a. h of monomer battery of battery pack, with 5% of the depth of discharge, the cycle life of more than 2000 weeks.

Discharge electrode reaction can be written as: the cathode zinc + 20 h e ˉ ˉ - 2 = the positive Ag2O ZnO + H2O + H20 + 2 e ˉ ˉ = 2 ag + 20 h battery overall reaction is: zinc + Ag2O = ZnO ag + 2 tiny buttons type cap silver-zinc battery shell from the positive and negative (both are made of stainless steel), insulation, sealing ring, isolation film, the positive active material (a line and a small amount of graphite powder, the latter a conductive role), the cathode active material (zinc amalgam mercury content rarely), electrolyte solution (concentrated KOH solution), and other assembled.Quality good available for about 1 year, the best available about 2 years.Watch in general is this kind of button cell battery.The battery after use or scrap, no longer to charge.Why in the button type silver-zinc battery cathode active material used is not the pure zinc but few zinc amalgam mercury content?This is because if use the pure zinc, battery when not work (when empty) will be the battery electrolyte solution in the corrosion and release hydrogen gas, so that affect the service life of the battery, and use mercury though rarely zinc amalgam, can make the battery when not work zinc corrosion process was extremely stop to the smallest degree.Silver-zinc battery is such, not only in certain other battery also do the same.As in the traditional process of manufacturing zinc manganese dry battery, zinc processing with mercuric chloride solution, part of the zinc reaction happened: zinc + Hg = zinc + Hg generated mercury react with zinc to form zinc amalgam.The dosage of the manufacturing process control HgCl2, generated in the alloy containing mercury only about 0.25%.Too much mercury zinc is brittle.Are studying in the pool, there is no mercury process to avoid the dangers of mercury pollution.

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