Preparation of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

May 25, 2019   Pageview:40

As the last part of the series of industrialized manufacture and batch production of lithium ion battery materials, this paper mainly introduces the related synthesis methods and related technical means of cathode materials. Compared with the other three main materials, the industrialized production processes of cathode materials are more, the synthetic routes are more complex, the control of temperature, environment and impurity content is more strict, and the cathode materials are also more stringent. There are mainly lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganate, lithium iron phosphate, ternary materials and so on. Because the cathode materials of power batteries with high energy density on the market are all ternary materials with different ratios, this paper begins with the ternary materials and introduces the industrialized production methods of the materials.


The origin of the ternary material:


Ternary material can be thought of as the earliest doping studies from the 1990 s, such as LiCoO2, LiNiO2 doping, such as, through the study of doping Co in LiNiO2 formed LiNi1 xCoxO2 series of positive electrode materials, in the late 1990 s, the relevant scholars conducted in LiNi1 - xCoxO2 doping Mg, Al and Mn. French Saft - LiNi1 - x - yCoxAlyO2 and LiNi1 - x - yCoxMgyO2, but early Li (Ni, Co, Mn) O2 is not elucidated by adopting appropriate reaction mechanism and preparation methods, at the beginning of the 21st century, Japan Ohzuku and Canada all the glory that surrounded J.R.D ahn, using hydroxyl coprecipitation preparation a series of Li (Ni, Co, Mn) O2 compounds. Among them, the nickel were the main elements of electrochemical activity, mn on the material structure ensured the stability and thermal stability, electrochemical polarization and cobalt in reducing material increase ratio characteristics has an irreplaceable role. The ternary material with high specific capacity, the cycle of good performance, stable structure, reliable safety and moderate cost. On the basis of laboratory study, not found the obvious weaknesses of the material.


From the development of the anode materials can also be seen in the road map, the ternary material for the whole of the development of power The battery Ascension played a important role in the energy density.


The synthesis of ternary material:


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As lithium ion battery material industrialized mass production manufacturing, series of the last article, this article mainly introduces the related synthesis methods of anode materials and related technology, compared with the other three big advocate material, the anode material of industrial production process is more, synthetic route is relatively complex, the temperature, the environment, the control of the impurity content is more strict, the anode materials mainly include cobalt acid lithium, manganese acid lithium, lithium iron phosphate, three Yuan, such as materials due to their high energy density on the market at present the power battery anode materials are different ratio of ternary material, so this article by the three Yuan material, began to introduce material industrialization production methods.


The origin of the ternary material:


Ternary material can be thought of as the earliest doping studies from the 1990 s, such as LiCoO2, LiNiO2 doping, such as, through the study of doping Co in LiNiO2 formed LiNi1 xCoxO2 series of positive electrode materials, in the late 1990 s, the relevant scholars conducted in LiNi1 - xCoxO2 doping Mg, Al and Mn. French Saft - LiNi1 - x - yCoxAlyO2 and LiNi1 - x - yCoxMgyO2, but early Li (Ni, Co, Mn) O2 is not elucidated by adopting appropriate reaction mechanism and preparation methods, at the beginning of the 21st century, Japan Ohzuku and Canada all the glory that surrounded J.R.D ahn, using hydroxyl coprecipitation preparation a series of Li (Ni, Co, Mn) O2 compounds. Among them, the nickel were the main elements of electrochemical activity, mn on the material structure ensured the stability and thermal stability, electrochemical polarization and cobalt in reducing material increase ratio characteristics has an irreplaceable role. The ternary material with high specific capacity, the cycle of good performance, stable structure, reliable safety and moderate cost. On the basis of laboratory study, not found the obvious weaknesses of the material.


The preparation method of lithium ion battery cathode material


The preparation method of lithium ion battery cathode material


From the development of the anode materials can also be seen in the road map, the development of the ternary material up to the promotion of the whole power battery energy density to the important role.


The synthesis of ternary material:


The preparation method of lithium ion battery cathode material


To release the thermal stability of different material, can be seen from the graph, with the increase of nickel content, the thermal stability of the anode material is falling, need for a balance in terms of performance and safety, can not blindly in order to improve the energy density and it's not safe to go to the application of the material.


First according to the stoichio metric ratio to configure a certain concentration of metal ions in the mixed solution, and configuration of a certain concentration of ammonia alkali mix solution as a precipitating agent and complexing agent, the atmosphere of nitrogen the reaction kettle for continuous access for nitrogen after reaction, by adjusting the solution pH value, the production of composite sediment, after filtering, washing, vacuum drying precursor can be obtained directly. Involves the use of the choice of precipitating agent, complexing agent, the choice of the ways of feeding, reaction atmosphere control, and so on.


The choice of lithium source:


Industrial production usually selected lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate, but lithium hydroxide containing crystal water, mixing effect is not good, so more lithium carbonate. The most common type of lithium mineral spodumene and brine.


The principal compositions of the lithium ion battery materials including the electrolyte, isolation material, is the cathode materials. The anode material occupies large proportion is the quality of the anode materials ratio of 3:1 to 4:1), because the performance of the anode materials directly affects the performance of lithium ion battery, its cost is also directly determine the costs of batteries.


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