What does a dry battery do?

Sep 20, 2019   Pageview:38

Dry battery belongs to the galvanic battery in the chemical power supply, it is a kind of disposable battery, it thinks carbon rod is positive pole, with zinc canister is negative pole, change chemical energy into electric energy to supply external circuit. In the chemical reaction, because zinc is more active than manganese, zinc loses electrons to be oxidized and manganese gains electrons to be reduced.

Ordinary dry-cell batteries are mostly zinc manganese battery, the middle one is the anode carbon rod, a mixture of graphite and manganese dioxide of outsourcing, the outside is a layer of mat again. Online electrolyte with very thick paste, its composition is the ammonium chloride solution and starch, and small amounts of preservatives. The outermost layer is made of metal zinc skin tube, which is negative, the battery discharge is the ammonia chloride and zinc electrolytic reaction, release the charge by graphite conductive to the anode carbon, zinc electrolysis reaction is will release hydrogen, this gas is may increase the risk of battery internal resistance, and mixed with graphite manganese dioxide is used to absorb hydrogen. But if the work continuously or the battery is too long, manganese dioxide is too late However, if the battery is heated or left for a period of time, the accumulated hydrogen inside will be released by heat or slowly.

Schematic diagram of working principle of battery

The basic components of a battery are the anode, cathode, and electrolyte

Anode: electrons are removed through an external circuit and the electrode itself is oxidized. Cathode: electrons are obtained through an external circuit, and the electrode itself undergoes a reduction reaction.

Electrolyte: provides a migration channel for ions from one electrode to another within the cell.

The active material of the electrode can be gas, liquid or solid, and the electrolyte can be liquid or solid.

Alkaline battery

The cathode reaction

Zn+2OH-->ZnO+H2O+2e-

The positive response

2MnO2+H2O+2e-->Mn2O3+2OH-

Complete response

Zn+2MnO2->ZnO+Mn2O31.5V

2. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

The cathode reaction

Li->Li++e-

The positive response

4Li++4e-+2SOCl2->4LiCl+SO2+S

Complete response

4Li+2SOCl2->4LiCl+SO2+S3.6V

3.Lithium manganese dioxide battery

The cathode reaction

Li->Li++e

The positive response

MnO2+Li++e->MnIIIO2(Li+)

Complete response

Li+MnO2->MnIIIO2(Li+)3.6V

4. Nimh batteries

The cathode reaction

MH+OH-<->M+H2O+e-

0.83V

The positive response

NiOOH+H2O+e-<->Ni(OH)2+OH-

0.49V

Complete response

NiOOH+MH<->Ni(OH)2+M

1.32V

5. Nickel cadmium battery

The cathode reaction

Cd+2OH-<->Cd(OH)2+2e-

0.81V

The positive response

NiOOH+2H2O+2e-<->Ni(OH)2+2OH-

0.49V

Complete response

Cd+NiO2+2H2O<->Cd(OH)2+Ni(OH)2

1.30V

6. Lithium ion battery

The cathode reaction

6C+Li++e-<->6CLi

The positive response

LiCoO2<->CoO2+Li++e-

Complete response

6C+LiCoO2<->CoO2+6CLi

3.7V

7. Lithium polymer battery

The cathode reaction

6C+Li++e-<->6CLi

The positive response

LiCoO2<->CoO2+Li++e-

Complete response

6C+LiCoO2<->CoO2+6CLi

3.7V

8. Nickel zinc battery

The cathode reaction

Zn+2OH-<->Zn(OH)2+2e

1.24V

The positive response

NiOOH+2H2O+2e-<->Ni(OH)2+2OH-

Complete response

2NiOOH+Zn+2H2O<->2Ni(OH)2+Zn(OH)2

1.73V

9. Sodium sulfur battery

The cathode reaction

2Na<->2Na++2e-

The positive response

3S+2e-<->S32-

Complete response

2Na+3S<->Na2S3

2.076V

10. Iron nickel battery

The cathode reaction

Fe+2OH-<->Fe(OH)2+2e-

3Fe(OH)2+2OH-<->Fe3O4+4H2O+2e-

0.81V

The positive response

2NiOOH+2H2O<->2Ni(OH)2+2OH-

0.49V

Complete response

3Fe+8NiOOH+4H2O<->8Ni(OH)2+Fe3O4

1.30V

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