Lithium-Ion Battery Cooling System-Definition and Working

Feb 14, 2020   Pageview:84

These days’ people prefer lithium-ion batteries over nickel-cadmium batteries due to the fact that the LIB technology offers high energy density. It also provides a low self-discharge rate, which is why these batteries are generally used in many automated vehicles, mobile phones, cameras, laptops, and other electronic items.

Definition of Lithium-ion battery cooling system

Due to low maintenance, the Li-on batteries are reliable to use. However, when these batteries are used extensively, they can trouble the users with its performance. When batteries are prone to certain conditions and events, the LIB can give degraded performance and failures. The reasons for degraded performance can include the following:

  • Electrical Abuse

  • Mechanical abuse

  • Defects of cell manufacturing

  • Unfavorable temperature conditions


Out of all these listed issues, the most common one is adverse temperature conditions. There are many cooling systems available that can cool down the lithium-ion batteries. This can further result in having a long life span of the LIB and improved performance.

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What is the lithium-ion battery cooling system?

The lithium-ion battery cooling system is the process of increasing and enhancing the life span of lithium  batteries. This can be done by regulating the level of temperature and distribution of it; the process is known as a battery thermal management system. The LIB’s are unable to deliver high standard performance when they are extremely hot.

Therefore a balanced ambient temperature is required so that the batteries can work effectively. The following listed below are some factors that get affected when the temperature of LIB’s  get unstable or uneven:

  • Safety of the battery

  • Reliability of the battery

  • Operation of the electrochemical system

  • The efficiency of the battery

  • Charging power of the battery

  • The lifespan of the battery

  • Cost of the life cycle of battery

When LIB’s attain an even distribution of temperature with the help of a cooling system, then the potential hazards are automatically decreased to a great extent. It is analyzed that the temperature of the battery should not remain too hot or too cold in order to experience adequate performance.

Does the lithium-ion battery cooling system improve battery performance?

Yes, it is true that lithium-ion battery cooling systems help in improving the performance of the battery. This is because the life span and the working condition of LIB ‘s are primarily dependent upon the temperature.

If you want the batteries of your electronic vehicles to work longer, then proper cooling is extremely important. Since most of the electronic vehicles use Li-ion batteries, it is imperative that they are exposed to evenly distributed temperature conditions. Otherwise, the battery can start giving a degraded performance. The Li-ion batteries are known for high energy density; the power density of the batteries can get disturbed if proper cooling is not provided to the batteries.


One of the important features of Li-ion batteries is its low self-discharge rate. It is observed that when the batteries get too hot, the self-discharge rate also gets disturbed. Often you will notice that the battery is getting discharged within a very short period of time. To avoid such conditions, it is required that LIB’s are exposed to the proper cooling system. Frequent discharge of these batteries can be very annoying and frustrating for the user. Therefore the experts highly suggest maintaining the proper temperature.

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How does lithium-ion battery cooling system work?

To increase the performance of the battery, it is crucial that the temperature of the cell is well maintained. Failure in keeping careful control over temperature can lead to degradation, reduced performance, an absolute failure. Therefore in order to avoid such conditions, the temperature of Li-ion batteries is maintained and controlled through the thermal management system.

The main purpose of cooling management is to manage the uniform temperature within the design of the Li-on batteries. Since these batteries are used in all types of electric vehicles today, the cooling system of these batteries can be understood by discussing the cooling options of electric vehicle batteries. These methods are listed below; you can consider them to learn about LIB’s cooling system.

  • Air cooling method

The air cooling method works around the principle of convection. In this system, the heat is transferred from the battery when air runs along the surface of the lithium-ion battery. This is one of the easiest and simple methods of cooling. There are many car manufacturers who use this method of cooling.

  • Liquid coolants

It is true that liquid coolants have much higher heat conductivity. Their capacity to absorb heat is more than the air cooling method. This is why the performance of liquid coolants remains effective. One of the significant advantages of liquid cooling systems is that they have their own set of safety, which helps in maintaining the accurate level of temperature within the Li-on batteries.

Since the uniformity of the temperature has equal importance, it is highly essential that cooling systems take care of that as well. The liquid coolants help in maintaining the uniformity of the temperature. There are many car manufacturers like the jaguar, Tesla, BMW, who uses a liquid coolant system in their electronic vehicles in order to cool down the LIB.

Some Final Words

Since almost all the manufacturers of electronic vehicles use lithium-ion batteries, it is clear that they are highly reliable. When it comes to mobile phones, laptops, and cameras, lithium-ion remains the first choice of manufacturers due to its advanced utility. Therefore it is important that these batteries should be used in a proper manner so that more utility can be derived out of them. Using cooling systems to maintain the performance level of these batteries is undoubtedly a perfect way.

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