Mar 16, 2023 Pageview：22
If we compare the number of daily batteries, lithium-ion batteries will be the most common among all. These are not only cheap but also offer great performance figures. The only thing that makes these an unsuitable option is their safety. These batteries are not physically strong, and neither are they resistant to a lot of heat.
So, before you begin using them, knowing how temperature affects these batteries and how to prevent any damage would help a lot.
Lithium-ion Battery Temperature Range Celsius
Like all other batteries, these batteries also come with a safe operating temperature range. It is the range in which the battery can provide the best performance in terms of:
Lithium batteries' safe operating temperature ranges between 5 degrees Celsius and 20 degrees Celsius. Going beyond this range on either side will have negative effects.
What happens when we exceed the minimum limit of this range?
The minimum limit of lithium-ion battery temperature is 5 degrees Celsius and going below that will be too cold for the battery. So, going as low as 0 degrees Celsius will slow the chemical reactions happening in the battery.
As a result, the power output, as well as the capacity, will decrease. These will keep decreasing the more you keep the battery at a lower temperature, and the lower temperature gets. In the worst case, your battery may get permanent damage to its internals, making it useless in no time.
What happens when we exceed the maximum limit of this range?
These batteries are not designed to deal with extreme weather conditions for a long time. So, exposure to a higher temperature will make your battery lose its capacity and power output performance since the chemical reactions will fasten. The battery will also get permanent damage under prolonged exposure; the first sign of that damage will be swelling in the batteries.
It is because going above the temperature range generates gases inside the batteries. As these are present in sealed pouches, the gases cannot escape, so they swell up. This swelling can cause a fire if punctured. Swelling can also damage delicate devices like smartphones as they open up due to pressure, and often their displays break.
How much heat does a lithium-ion battery generate?
While using lithium-ion batteries, you need to care not only about the external but also the internal temperature. It is because when a chemical reaction happens in these batteries, they generate some heat. The amount of heat is different under different conditions, and so are the effects.
How much heat does a lithium-ion battery generate when charging?
The most common case when a lithium-ion battery will generate heat is when charging. The heat is almost negligible when the battery is slow charging since the chemical reactions are very slow. However, under fast charging, the heat generation increases. That's why we often feel our smartphones get hot when they fast charge.
Typically battery manufacturers mark their batteries to generate around 0.5 degrees Celsius of heat while charging. However, this value may vary among manufacturers and battery models.
How much heat does a lithium-ion battery generate when discharging?
The amount of heat generated by lithium-ion batteries when they discharge is different. The basic concept is the same faster chemical reactions will generate more heat. So, when the battery puts out more power, the heat generation is higher. We can calculate this heat value by the following values:
Considering the power wasted being around 0.5 watts, the battery giving 500mA of current, and having an internal resistance of 0.2 ohms, the heat generated will be a product of all these values. So, in this case, it will be 50mW heat generated when the battery is discharging or being used.
Can the internally generated heat cause any issues?
Yes, if the battery keeps producing heat and the external temperature is also hot, it will not be very favorable for the life of a battery. The battery may swell up or catch fire due to flammable gases inside. So, the best way to keep your batteries safe when they produce a lot of heat while charging is by maintaining a lower external temperature range.
Are lithium-ion batteries temperature sensitive?
Yes, lithium-ion batteries are not only temperature sensitive, but the temperature is a critical factor for these batteries. Temperature can increase or decrease performance and restrict these batteries from certain applications. Not monitoring the temperature results in side effects with these batteries in multiple aspects, including the following.
The first thing temperature will disturb in a lithium-ion battery is its performance. These batteries perform a chemical reaction inside the battery between the electrolyte and other materials. When the battery's temperature enters unfavorable ranges, it will cause issues with the chemical reaction, affecting performance. Hence the power output of your battery may be affected.
Next up is the lifespan. Although these batteries are rated for around 500 charge cycles, the temperature can change these figures. When these batteries operate under unfavorable temperature ranges, the internals of the batteries takes the damage. As a result, they become unable to meet the full charging capacity, and this decrease makes the charge cycles end quickly.
Charge capacity is subject to operational temperature here. With low temperatures, lithium batteries' ability to hold charges significantly decreases. Under such situations, you cannot charge these batteries or yield full power from them. The same happens with hot temperatures, which can further damage the internals, decreasing the charge capacity.
Safety and Reliability
The safety and reliability of lithium-ion batteries can become risky under high temperatures. These batteries are seen catching fire due to high heat as they fill up with self-generated flammable gases. These batteries can even explode due to the fire, and it can result in damaging the device and injuring the person using the battery.
Lithium-ion batteries are currently the best batteries considering their features and benefits. These are cheap yet offer great backup in small sizes. Depending on the application's requirements, these can be made smaller or bigger, thinner or thicker, and in different forms.
With such a long list of benefits, the only thing you must be careful about is the operating temperature of these batteries since they are very sensitive to the temperature. So, ensure that you never exceed lithium-ion batteries' safe working temperature range.
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