What types of batteries are available for pure electric cars

Oct 22, 2019   Pageview:541

In terms of major categories, electric vehicle batteries are divided into two categories, battery and fuel cell. Battery is suitable for pure electric vehicles, including lead-acid battery, nickel-cadmium battery, nickel-metal hydride battery, sodium sulfur battery, secondary lithium battery, air battery. Lead-acid batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries and nickel-hydride batteries appeared earlier and have been widely eliminated. Nowadays, lithium batteries are basically used in mainstream pure electric vehicles, mainly including lithium cobalt battery, such as tesla products. Lithium manganese acid batteries, such as Toyota prius, nissan leaf; lithium iron phosphate battery, such as byd products, zino 1E, etc.

Lead-acid battery is the most commonly used new energy vehicle battery. Lead acid battery plate is made of lead alloy grille, electrolyte for dilute sulfuric acid, two plates are covered with lead sulfate. But after charging, the lead sulfate on the positive electrode is changed into lead dioxide, and the lead sulfate on the negative electrode is changed into metal lead. When discharging, a chemical reaction takes place in the opposite direction. The advantage of lead-acid battery is that the electromotive force is stable when discharging, but the disadvantage is that it is less than the energy, and it is highly corrosive to the environment.

Nickel-metal hydride batteries are widely used in hybrid new energy vehicles, which have a large energy density ratio and can effectively extend the driving time of vehicles. In addition, the discharge characteristics of nimh batteries are stable, smooth discharge curve, low calorific value, but large volume and pollution.

Compared with lead-acid battery and nickel-metal hydride battery, lithium ion battery has the advantages of high working voltage, large specific energy, small volume, light weight, long cycle life, low self-discharge rate, no memory effect and no pollution. Therefore, more and more automobile manufacturers choose to use lithium ion battery as the power battery of pure electric vehicle.

The three most common types of lithium-ion batteries are lithium cobalt, lithium manganese and lithium iron phosphate. lithium cobalt oxide battery has high efficiency, large discharge current, high charging speed and light weight. The downside is that it is less stable, which is why such battery technology makes it difficult to make high-capacity cells. However, lithium manganate battery has a slightly lower cost and is not as aggressive as lithium cobalt oxide. It has better low-temperature performance and is more suitable for use in cold areas.

lithium iron phosphate battery is known as the safest vehicle battery technology, because compared with lithium cobalt acid battery and lithium manganese acid battery, the stability of lithium iron phosphate battery, especially at high temperature stability is much more stable, in the event of accidents such as fire is less. But lithium iron phosphate batteries are less efficient than either battery technology and require about twice as much weight to store the same amount of energy, which is why the new battery technology is a poor choice for high-performance electric sports cars.

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