Analysis of advantages and disadvantages of solid-state batteries

Oct 09, 2019   Pageview:10

Recently, the Toyota finally and electric motors got the headlines. "Solid appeared frequently in the press release battery" Exactly is what position? Not only Toyota, BMW is also planning to production solid-state batteries car, "challenge" tesla from a distance, but according to the personage inside course of study says solid-state batteries the road to the commercialization of the tao resistance and long!Eat the melon people just want to say: "the heart! Brother!"

, according to media reports that Toyota is equipped with solid state battery can boost a new range of electric vehicles, and shorten the charging time.The new solid state battery electric vehicle is expected to officially listed in 2022.Toyota why have such confidence?

The commercialization of the solid-state batteries tao resistance and long road

Can be seen by comparing the number of patents, Toyota has a solid-state batteries number of patents, is ahead and in addition in the Chinese army, Ningbo university, USTC, Huawei, China's electricity section 18, the Chinese academy of sciences institute of occupying the five seats in the top ten patents.It can be seen that in lithium battery prevalent in power under the background, our country the study of solid-state batteries are still growing.

So, solid-state batteries exactly "he2 de2 he2 ability" attract many enterprises and institutions to study?

Compared to traditional lithium battery, solid difference lies in the solid state electrolyte of lithium battery.Solid-state lithium batteries and traditional lithium-ion batteries, including battery units (the anode, cathode, electrolyte), and its working principle and the principle of traditional lithium battery is the same.

Mentioned in the early Japanese media reports, the advantages of solid-state batteries have only one: fast charging., a Toyota spokesman said the Toyota brand new electric cars equipped with solid-state batteries, it can be finished in a few minutes the charging process, but would not comment on specific product planning.

According to the small make up, the advantages of solid-state batteries are as follows:

Security is extremely high.Compared with the traditional lithium-ion batteries, solid-state batteries are the most prominent advantage is safety.Flammable and explosive liquid electrolyte, and in the process of charging lithium dendrite growth is easy to Pierce the diaphragm, causing the battery short circuit, cause potential safety hazard.And solid electrolyte nonflammable, non-corrosive, non-volatile, there is no leakage problem, and overcome the phenomenon of lithium dendrite and thus solid-state batteries has a very high security.

High energy density.Solid state lithium battery electrolyte can block dendrite growth, material scope of application system, for the new type of lithium battery with higher energy density of space technology.At present, the research and development of solid-state batteries can provide basic energy density can be up to 300-400 wh/kg.

Loop performance is strong.Solid electrolyte has solved the liquid electrolyte in the process of charging and discharging of membrane formation of solid electrolyte interface problems and lithium dendrite phenomenon, greatly improved the circularity and service life of lithium-ion batteries, ideally cycle performance is excellent, can reach 45000 times or so.

Scope of application.Solid electrolyte with solid state lithium battery large elasticity of compact structure, adjustable size, design etc., can be applied to drive the micro electronics, also can be used to power and energy storage areas.In addition, solid-state batteries also have more wide working temperature range, the basic guarantee to 25 ℃ to 60 ℃ temperature range.

Advantages and disadvantages

Quick charge is difficult.Solid-state batteries are ratio is very low performance of Lipton series battery electrolyte (actually oxide system generally poor performance ratio), can also be based on sulfur high-performance high-magnification made has good solid electrolyte of lithium sulfur batteries.But overall, used as a power source, solid-state batteries at high rate performance still has a lot of challenges.

Cost price is high.It is known that liquid lithium battery costs around $200 - $300 per kilowatt-hour, if using existing technology to make enough for smartphones solid-state batteries power supply, its costs will be $15000, which is enough to power supply for cars solid-state batteries cost was staggering $90 million.

In the face of many uncertain factors of solid-state batteries, still stand in research institutions and enterprise layout.

As early as in 2015, the British billionaire James dyson and German auto parts giant Bosch SaKti3 bought solid-state batteries firm and solid state battery startup Seeo.We have learned, in August 2016, dyson paid $1.4 billion, to build a battery factory, solid-state batteries used in a large number of production.Bosch is not far behind, after the acquisition of Seeo again and mitsubishi heavy industries with GSYUASA battery company to set up a new factory, main solid anode lithium ion batteries

In addition with overseas media reported that BMW is developing a lithium ion battery recently, the battery will replace the existing with solid electrolyte electrolyte, new battery plan production in 2026.

Foreign enterprise layout, not only domestic lithium electricity companies are also competing for "cake".

CATL in sulfide solid-state batteries more mature, is to accelerate the development of EV with sulfide solid-state lithium battery research and development.

According to media reports, new energy, Henan Huanyu lithium dynamic power companies such as solid-state batteries are layout.

Research along with the development of scientific research institutions and enterprises of the layout, solid-state batteries for market is more and more big, but distance solid-state batteries still has a long way to commercialization.

Toyota has said, the hope can in 2020, the new energy vehicle technology solid-state batteries.From the theory put forward by the time, and the technology development process, solid-state batteries is not a new concept, but the development progress and not so fast.As liquid lithium battery, in the 1970 s, the relevant concept and experimental certification in go hand in hand, but the real large-scale use, is the end of the 20th century.

Is not just a matter of time, high cost has been the development of solid-state batteries "obstacle".At present, the technology of the solid-state batteries is facing the following problems: a solid electrolyte interface between across the electrodes with high impedance, solid electrolyte conductivity is low, the cost of materials preparation is expensive.According to the enterprises and research institutes, many technologies are gradually, successively put forward the corresponding solutions, but the solid-state batteries way forward is not so smooth.

In a word, the development of solid state battery is still in its early stages, at present all the data and features are laboratory, distance commercialization has a long way to go, tao resistance and long!

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