Battery Energy Density-Introduction, Calculating And Cycle Life

Oct 26, 2020   Pageview:272

The battery energy density implies percentage of energy included in a specfic unit (mass or capacity). The higher the energy density, the longer the run-time will be. There are distinctive types of energy stored in materials, and it takes a particular sort of reaction to launch every type of energy. In order of the energy released’ s standard magnitude, these reactions are: nuclear, chemical, electrochemical, and electrical.

If a system has an excessive energy density, it may keep plenty of energy in a small amount of mass. Extreme energy density does not always suggest a high-power density. An item with a high energy density, however low power density, can carry out work for a pretty long duration of time.

Which battery have high theoretical energy density?

Theoretical energy density refers to analytical calculations based on material traits and may be considered because of the chemistry’s maximum capacity. The practical energy density refers to measured energy densities from the complete battery.

Environmental pollutants and power scarcity cause a non-stop call for battery energy storage systems with a better energy density. Due to its lowest mass-density amongst metals, ultra-high theoretical capacity, and the maximum negative reduction potential, lithium (Li) has appeared as one of the most promising anode materials.

Lithium-ion batteries have emerged as the top preference of rechargeable power supply as they provide excessive energy density than others. However, the overall performance relies upon the electrode substances employed in them, deciding its energy density, power density, and life cycle. Mostly cobalt-based lithium-ion batteries are for portable applications. The battery includes a cobalt oxide positive electrode (cathode) and a graphite carbon in the negative electrode (anode). One of the principal blessings of the cobalt-based battery is its high-power density. Extended run-time makes this chemistry appealing for mobile phones, laptops, and cameras.

Today lithium-ion is available in many types, and the variations in the composition are mainly associated with the cathode material. The cobalt-based lithium-ion seemed first in 1991, introduced with the aid of Sony. This battery chemistry won brief recognition due to its excessive power density. Possibly because of lower power density, spinel-based lithium-ion had a slower start. When brought in 1996, the sector demanded longer run-time above something else. With the need for a high current charge on several transferrable devices, the mineral has currently affected the front line and demand.

Sony is that specialize in the nickel-cobalt metallic element (NCM) version. The cathode has cobalt, nickel, and manganese withinside the crystal structure that creates a multi-metallic oxide material to which lithium is added. The manufacturer gives various products inside this battery family, catering to customers with excessive energy density or extreme load capability.

The most recent addition to the lithium-ion family is the A123 System, wherein nano-phosphate substances are added in the cathode. It claims to have the best power density in W/kg of a commercially to be had in any lithium-ion battery. The cell may be discharged continuously to 100% of-discharge at 35C and can bear discharge pulses as high as 100C.

24V Emergency Starting Power Supply,Low Temperature Large Current
Low Temperature Large Current 24V Emergency Starting Power Supply Battery specification: 25.2V28Ah (lithium battery) , 27V300F (supercapacitor pack) Charging temperature:-40℃~+50℃ Discharging temperature: -40℃~+50℃ Starting current: 3000A


●High energy density.

●It does not want prolonged priming while new. Every day charge is all that’s required.

●Relatively low self-discharge - self-discharge is much less than half that of nickel-based batteries.

●The battery wants low Maintenance - no intermittent discharge is needed.


●Needs safety circuit to maintain voltage and current inside safe ends.

●Even though not in use, subject to getting old - storage in a cool area at a 40% charge reduces the aging effect.

●Transportation restrictions - shipment of large portions can be an issue to regulatory control.

●Expensive to manufacture

The Lithium-air battery is also one of the names that come into the picture when it comes to high energy density. The lithium-air battery (Li-air) is a metal-air electrochemical battery that uses lithium oxidation on the anode and reduces oxygen on the cathode to set off the current flow. In theory, pairing metallic elements and ambient oxygen will cause electrochemical cells with the best| possible specific energy. Indeed, a non-aqueous Li-air battery’s distinctive theoretical energy, withinside the charged state with Li2O2 product and excluding the O mass, is ~40.1 MJ/kg.

How do you Calculate the Energy Density of the Battery?

The energy density is commonly expressed in two ways: gravimetric energy density and volumetric energy density. :

1.The gravimetric energy density of a battery is a degree of how tons of energy a battery includes in assessment to its weight and is generally expressed in Watt-hours/kilogram(W-hr/kg).

2.The Volumetric energy density is a degree of how tons energy a battery includes in assessment to its volume and is generally expressed in Watt-hours/liter(W-hr/l).

Low Temperature High Energy Density Rugged Laptop Polymer Battery 11.1V 7800mAh
Low Temperature High Energy Density Rugged Laptop Polymer Battery Battery specification: 11.1V 7800mAh -40℃ 0.2C discharge capacity ≥80% Dustproof, resistance to dropping, anti - corrosion, anti - electromagnetic interference

Does High Energy Density Battery Last Longer?

Today lithium-ion batteries are the fastest growing and the most promising batteries available. The lithium-ion battery has energy density typically twice then the standard nickel-cadmium. The features of lithium-ion batteries are good and very much similar to nickel-cadmium batteries in terms of discharge. The lithium-ion batteries have a high cell voltage of 3.6 volts which allows the battery to be with only one cell, whereas a nickel-based pack requires three cells of 1.2 volts which are connected in series.

Lithium-ion batteries required a protection circuit to maintain a safe operation. The protection circuit limits each cell’s highest voltage during charge and prevents the cell’s voltage from dropping too low on discharge. Some battery deterioration is noticeable after one year, and the battery frequently fails after 2 to 3 years. However, lithium-ion packs are also known to serve for five years in some applications.

Manufacturers are continually trying to improve the lithium-ion battery with new and enhanced chemical combinations. With such rapid progress, it becomes difficult to assess how well the revised battery lasts.


Lithium-Ion batteries are the best to use; they last longer and require low maintenance. Moreover, it provides you with high density and does not get self-discharged.  In most cases, if taken care of, the battery lasts up to 5 years.  So, it’s the best choice for portable things.


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