Jun 12, 2019 Pageview：16
At present, our commonly used vehicle batteries are mainly divided into three categories, namely ordinary batteries, dry load batteries and maintenance-free batteries. Ordinary battery; the plate of an ordinary battery is composed of an oxide of lead and lead, and the electrolyte is an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid. Its main advantage is that the voltage is stable and the price is cheap; the disadvantage is that the specific energy is low (that is, the energy stored per kilogram of the battery), the service life is short, and the daily maintenance is frequent. Dry-charged battery: Its full name is a dry-charged lead-acid battery. Its main feature is that the negative plate has a high storage capacity. In the completely dry state, it can save the obtained power within two years. When used, Just add the electrolyte and wait for 20-30 minutes to use. Maintenance-free battery: Maintenance-free battery due to its structural advantages, the consumption of electrolyte is very small, and it is basically unnecessary to supplement distilled water during the service life. It also has the characteristics of shock resistance, high temperature resistance, small size and small self-discharge. The service life is generally twice that of a normal battery. There are also two kinds of maintenance-free batteries on the market: the first one does not require maintenance (adding replenishing liquid) after the one-time addition of electrolyte at the time of purchase; the other is that the battery itself has been charged with electrolyte and sealed. The user cannot add replenishing liquid at all.
On the outer casing of the battery, the two ends are marked with the +, - symbol, and the words "voltage 1.5V" are indicated in the middle to indicate its electrode and voltage. The outer casing of the dry battery is a cylinder made of zinc, which contains chemicals. A carbon rod stands in the center of the zinc cylinder, and a copper cap is fixed on the top of the carbon rod. Due to chemical changes in the dry battery, a lot of positive charges are accumulated on the carbon rod, and a lot of negative charges are accumulated on the surface of the zinc cylinder. Carbon rods and zinc cylinders are called electrodes of dry batteries. Carbon rods that collect positive charges are called positive electrodes, and zinc cylinders that collect negative charges are called negative electrodes. The symbols + and - on the dry battery case indicate the positive and negative terminals of the battery, respectively. "Voltage 1.5V" means that the voltage between the two poles of the battery is 1.5 volts (unit of voltage). What is voltage? It can be explained by the case of water flow. If the switch is turned on, a flow of water flowing from the water tower to the user is formed in the water pipe. This is because the water level of the water tower is higher than that of the user, so that water pressure is generated in the water pipes connecting the two. The function of the pump is to continuously pump water from a low point to a high point of the water tower, so that the water level at the water tower is always higher than the user's position, and there is a certain water pressure between the two, so that the water continuously flows. When a small light bulb is connected between the two poles of the battery with a wire, the small light bulb illuminates, indicating that there is current in the circuit. The free charge in the circuit can cause a directional shift to form a current because the positive pole of the power supply has an excess positive charge, and the negative pole of the power supply has an excess negative charge, thereby generating a voltage on the circuit. The function of the power supply is similar to that of the water pump. It continuously concentrates the positive charge on the positive electrode, and the negative charge accumulates on the negative electrode, keeping a certain voltage between the two poles, so that a continuous current flows through the connecting conductor. A battery is one of the batteries. Its function is to store limited electric energy and use it in a suitable place. It works by converting chemical energy into electrical energy. It uses a lead plate filled with sponge lead as a negative electrode, a lead plate filled with lead dioxide as a positive electrode, and 22 to 28% of dilute sulfuric acid as an electrolyte. When charging, electrical energy is converted into chemical energy, which is converted into electrical energy during discharge. When the battery is discharged, the metal lead is a negative electrode, which undergoes an oxidation reaction and is oxidized to lead sulfate; the lead dioxide is a positive electrode, and a reduction reaction occurs, and is reduced to lead sulfate. When the battery is charged by direct current, the two poles respectively produce lead and lead dioxide. After removing the power supply, it returns to the state before discharge to form a chemical battery. A lead storage battery is a battery that can be repeatedly charged and discharged, and is called a secondary battery. Its voltage is 2V, usually three lead batteries are used in series, the voltage is 6V. The car uses six lead batteries in series to form a 12V battery pack. The lead storage battery should be supplemented with sulfuric acid after a period of use to keep the electrolyte containing 22-28% of dilute sulfuric acid.
Repair to the repair station
Add liquid, desulfurization, re-sort
Add water by yourself
What water is added to the battery needs to be determined according to the specific conditions: 1. Maintenance-free batteries do not need to be added. 2, water and battery dosing, you need to choose according to the specific gravity of the battery electrolyte: 1) electrolyte must be prepared with chemically pure sulfuric acid (or special electrolyte) and distilled water, the electrolyte density is generally from 1.25 to 1.29 g/cm3 (at 15 ° C). Industrial sulfuric acid and general water, due to impurities such as iron and copper, cause self-discharge and damage to the plates, and cannot be used in batteries. 2) The battery has almost no electricity, and the specific gravity of the electrolyte is not less than 1.19. When adding liquid, the distilled water is added to the vicinity of the lowest scale line, and then pure sulfuric acid (or special electrolyte) is added to make the specific gravity 1.2 or so exceeded the upper limit. 3) After the electrolyte is injected into the battery, the battery is allowed to stand for 3-6 hours, and the electrolyte temperature is lower than 35 °c to be charged. Charging time is about 3-4h. During the charging process, when the battery cell voltage rises by 2.4v, more bubbles appear in the electrolyte, and the charging current should be halved. After the end of charging, a discharge test is to be carried out to prevent the battery from being damaged by vulcanization only to be surface-charged, which is practically unusable. Therefore, before charging, observe that the battery should be replaced if there is sulfide condensation. 4) When the filling is full, the specific gravity of the electrolyte is adjusted to: when the room temperature is 30-40 °c, the relative density of the electrolyte is 1.270; when the temperature is 20-30 °c, the relative density of the electrolyte is 1.280; when the temperature is below 20 °c, the relative density of the electrolyte it is 1.290.
The regular name of the dry battery is called “maintenance-free battery”. Compared with the traditional wet battery, the performance parameters are basically the same. In appearance, the maintenance-free battery has no screw cap filled with electrolyte, and no water maintenance is required in the normal service life. On the ordinary battery, there are six (12V) caps for filling the electrolyte. During use, it is necessary to periodically check the height of the liquid in the battery and replenish the electrolyte at the appropriate time.
If there is no water in the battery, you can add distilled water or purified water. The steps are as follows:
1. Remove the battery from the car. At this time, pay attention to the positive and negative poles, don't confuse remember the position.
2. look at the battery liquid, is not below the lowest line, if it is, hurry to add water.
3. Take down the horizontal strip on the battery. It may be a bit tight. Don't worry, use force.
4. Drain distilled water or purified water with a syringe or a pen tube and inject them into six holes. Pay attention to the water level when filling the water, not higher than the water line.
5. Finally, after the six holes are added to the water level, put the battery back in place. After a short time, you can charge it.
You can try hydration repair. The liquid added to the battery in the market is commonly known as replenishing liquid, that is, dilute sulfuric acid. The density is generally 1.05~1.1g/ml. The battery will only lose water during use, and sulfuric acid will not be lost, so it is not necessary to add dilute sulfuric acid. Just add water (distilled or pure water).
Do not add tap water or mineral water. Due to the high content of mineral impurities and high conductivity, it will cause a problem of large self-discharge of the battery.
Water repair method:
At the end of life, the battery storage capacity will be reduced, you can try to add water to repair, add water must add deionized water or pure water, do not add tap water, will cause the battery self-discharge problem. The specific method is as follows:
1) First discharge the battery completely, because the internal acid density of the battery after discharge is basically 1.1g/mL or less;
2) Take out the cover piece, then remove the safety valve, pay attention to save it, do not dirty the safety valve for later use;
3) Add water, generally add 1g/AH per cell;
4) After standing for about one hour, install the safety valve and the cover sheet;
5) Charge, fully charge after full charge, and cycle three times.
The page contains the contents of the machine translation.