Lead Acid Battery Chemistry- Chemical Reaction, Working and Usage

Jan 14, 2021   Pageview:28

Lead-acid batteries are one of the most used types of batteries in the world. This is because of the usage benefits that make them perfect for almost all kinds of applications. Due to this high usage rate of these batteries, one thing that makes most people curious is what happens inside this battery and why it is so popular.

So, here we are to unveil all the secrets that happen inside the battery. Here we will discuss all about the chemistry happening inside the lead-acid batteries and we will also discuss the reason for the popularity of these batteries.

What chemical reaction happens inside a lead-acid battery?

The very first thing that most people are curious to know is what is the chemical reaction happening inside this type of battery. The part of the battery that causes this confusion is the electrolyte that is usually a solution of distilled water. Here we will share the details of the chemical reaction happening inside the battery.

The Process of Electrolysis

When the lead-acid battery works to store or provide electricity, the process is known as electrolysis. This is the process when the current is produced as a result of the chemical reaction between different parts of the battery. These parts have positive and negative charges on them and a connection between them causes the reaction to happen.

The roles of different parts and components inside the battery in the chemical reaction.

Here are the roles of different parts of the battery that work in the process of electrolysis.

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?The Negative Electrode

In the lead-acid batteries, the negative electrode is made from porous lead. The reason for this electrode being porous is to enhance the dissolution and formation of lead.

?The Positive Electrode

The positive electrode inside the lead-acid battery is made with lead oxide. This configuration of positive and negative electrodes is when the battery is fully charged.

?The Electrolyte

The electrolyte present in the lead-acid batteries is the solution of distilled water and sulfuric acid. Although water is more in terms of proportion, this battery is still called as battery acid because the addition of sulfuric acid makes it very strong. This electrolyte is responsible for the transfer of ions from one electrode to another.

How does the chemistry of lead-acid batteries work?

Well now that you know about the different parts of a battery and their working, this is the right time to explore the working of battery as a whole process. 2 main processes are happening inside of a battery. One is charging the battery while the other one is discharging the battery. Here we will discuss both the charging and discharging process in detail.

The chemistry of lead-acid battery while discharging.

When the battery is in a charged state, the positive electrode of the battery has a low number of electrons and the negative terminal of the battery has a high number of electrons. When the terminals of the battery are connected with a load, the electrons start flowing from one terminal to the other terminal.

The battery stops the process of producing power once both terminals get toa same number of electrons. This is also known as the cutoff voltage of the battery. In this state, the electrolyte of the battery becomes almost neutral water.

The chemistry of lead-acid battery while charging.

As in the process of discharging. The number of electrons get equal on both terminals of the battery, the charging process reverses this process. When the battery is being charged, the charger provides current instead of battery and the electrons move from the positive terminal to the negative terminal.

In this way, once the potential difference between two electrodes gets to the required point, the process of charging stops. During this process, the electrolyte also becomes acidic again as the battery is fully charged now.

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What are the lead-acid batteries used in?

Lead-acid batteries are one of the most popular batteries in the world. It is because they are applicable in a vast majority of applications. The reason for this is the optimal density, universal battery voltage rating, and other benefits that come along with these batteries. Here we will discuss some of the biggest applications of these batteries.

The biggest applications of lead-acid batteries.

The following are some applications of these batteries.

?Automobile Industry

There are a lot of cars and other vehicles that use fuel for running the engine of a car. For these cars, it is necessary to have a battery because this battery is responsible for smoothly running the electronics of the car. Most importantly, the battery is a necessary component because it is a user to crank start the engine of the car.

?Power Backup Systems

Another great application of these batteries is in the power backup system. Whether you have a UPS or you have a solar power system working at your home, office, or anywhere these batteries are a great option to be used with them for power storage. This is another big reason for these batteries being widely used.

The benefits of using lead-acid batteries.

The reason for lead-acid batteries being so widely used are the benefits of these batteries. Here we have mentioned some of the benefits of using lead-acid batteries.

  • Great current and power storage capacity.

  • Very long life and repairable.

  • Cheap technology

  • The technology is relatively mature and there are not many issues that need to be discovered.

  • These batteries are available in various sizes and voltage, and storage configurations.

  • These batteries are tolerant to abuse meaning the impact of overcharging and discharging the battery can damage it, but this problem can be resolved by replacing the damaged part.

These were some benefits of lead-acid batteries.


So, this was all about the lead-acid batteries. There is no wonder why these are the most used batteries for most of the power-hungry applications. After giving this article a good read, we hope that you now know all about the working and internal chemistry of this type of battery.

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